Primary Sources


Anchico (Sebastián Bozal), Trial testimony of Anchico (Sebastián Bozal), Ministerio de Cultura, Archivo General de Indias, Seville [Spain], Patronato 234, ramo 7, no. 2
Belinda, Petition to the Massachusetts General Court, February 14, 1783, Massachusetts Archives, Boston
Juliana de Santo Domingo, Teresa. Compendio de la Vida Ejemplar de la Venerable Madre Sor Teresa Juliana de Santo Domingo, [as told to, and ed. by] Juan Carlos Miguel de Paniagua [i.e., Pan y Agua]. Salamanca, por Eugenio Garcia de Honorato, J. S. Miguèl, Impressor de dicha Ciudad, y Universidad, 1752
Ribas, Captain Juan de. "Inquiry carried out by Captain Juan de Ribas, Alcalde Mayor, into the Population that [torn] the English Enemy on the Island of Santa Catalina,” Portobelo, 9 May 1635, Ministerio de Cultura, Archivo General de Indias, Seville, Audiencia de Santa Fe 223, no. 34, fols. 5r-15v
Roque, Juan. Testamento de Juan Roque, negro libre, Archivo General de la Nación, Mexico, Bienes Nacionales, vol. 1175, exp. 11, fols. 6r-7r and 17r-29r


Anonymous. “Juvenile Department: A Short History of the Poor Slaves.., No. III,” The Liberator 1:49 (3 December 1831), 195
Anonymous. “Cuban Slaves in England,” Anti-Slavery Reporter, ser. 3, vol. 2 (1854), 234-239
Anonymous. Slavery Illustrated, in the Histories of Zangara and Maquama,
Two Negroes Stolen From Africa and Sold Into Slavery. Related by Themselves (Manchester, NH: Wm. Irwin, 1849)
Baikie, William Balfour. Narrative of an Exploring Voyage Up the Rivers of the Kwóra and the Bínue, Commonly Known as the Niger and Tsádda, In 1854 (London: Frank Cass, 1966)
Barber, John Warner. A History of the Amistad Captives: Being a Circumstantial Account of the Capture of the Spanish Schooner Amistad, by the Africans on Board; Their Voyage, and Capture Near Long Island, New York; with Biographical Sketches of Each of the Surviving Africans; Also, an Account of the Trials Had on Their Case, before the District and Circuit Courts of the United States, for the District of Connecticut (New York: E.L. & J.W. Barber, 1840)
Belley, Jean-Baptist. Le Bout d'oreille des colons, ou Le système de l'hôtel de Massiac, mis au jour par Gouli. Belley, député noir de Saint-Domingue, à ses collègues (Paris: De l’Imprimerie de Pain, Passage Honore, 1794)
Crowther, Samuel. Journal of an Expedition up the Niger and Tshadda Rivers, undertaken by MacGregor Laird, Esq., in connection with the British Government in 1854 (London, 1970 [1855])
Crowther, Samuel. and John Christopher Taylor. The Gospel on the Banks of the Niger. Journals and Notices of the Native Missionaries accompanying he Niger Expedition of 1857-1859 (London, 1968)
Dishman, Robert B. “‘Natives of Africa, Now Forcibly Detained’: The Slave Petitioners of Revolutionary Portsmouth,” Historical New Hampshire 61 (Concord, NH, 2007)
Drumond, António de Meneses Vasconcellos. “Lettres sur l’Afrique Ancienne et Moderne,” Journal des Voyages, Découvertes et Navigations Modernes, ou, Archives Géographiques du XIXe siècle 32 (1826), 190-224
Edwards, Bryan. History, Civil and Commercial, of British Colonies in the West Indies
Handler, Jerome S. “Life Histories of Enslaved Africans in Barbados,” Slavery & Abolition 19:1 (1998), 129-141
Holland, Josiah Gilbert. History of Western Massachusetts: The Counties of Hampden, Hampshire, Franklin, and Berkshire. Embracing an Outline, or General History, of the Section, an Account of Its Scientific Aspects and Leading Interests, and Separate Histories of Its One Hundred Towns (Springfield, MA: S. Bowles and Co., 1855), 359-360
Johnson. “Johnson’s speech to the Massachusetts Anti-Slavery Society in Boston, 25 January 1837,” The Liberator 7:6 4 February 1837), 2
Koelle, Sigismund Wilhelm. Polyglotta Africana; or a Comparative Vocabulary of Nearly three hundred words and phrases, in more than one Hundred distinct African Languages (London, Church Missionary House, 1854)
Moreau-Saint-Méry, Médéric Louis Elie. Description topographique, physique, Civile, Politique et Historique de la partie française de L’isle Saint-Domingue, avec des Observations générales sur sa Population, sur le Caraĉtère, et les Mœurs de se divers Habitans; sur son Climat, sa Culture, ses Produĉtions, son Administration, etc. etc. (Philadelphia: Imprimé chez l’Auteur, 1796)
Proper, David R. “Lucy Terry Prince: ‘Singer of History,’” Contributions in Black Studies 9 (1988-1992), 187-214
Schön, J. F. and S. Crowther, Journals of the Rev. James Frederick Schon and Mr. Samuel Crowther who accompanied the Expedition up the Niger in 1841 (London, 1842)
Substance of the Report Delivered by the Court of Directors of the Sierra Leone Company, to the General Court of Proprietors, On Thursday the 27th of March 1794 (London: James Phillips, 1794)


Coming Soon!

Biographical Analysis

Biographical Analysis

Akurang-Parry, Kwabena. "`A Smattering of Education' and Petitions as Sources: A Study of African Slave Holders' Response to Abolition in the Gold Coast," History in Africa 27 (2000), 39-60
Akurang-Parry, Kwabena. “Remembering the Unforgotten: Histories of Enslavement and Transformation of the African Continent,” in Peyi Soyinka-Airwele and Rita Kiki Edozie, eds., Reframing Contemporary Africa: Politics, Culture, and Society in the Global Era. (Washington, DC: CQ Press, 2010), 82-99
Akurang-Parry, Kwabena. “ 'I Often Shed My Tears about This': Freed Slave Children, Apprenticeship Policy, and African Responses in the Gold Coast (Colonial Ghana), ca.1890-ca.1930,” in Paul Landau ed., Power of Doubt: Essays in Honor of David Henige (Madison: Parallel Press, 2011), 147-69
Alford, Terry. Prince Among Slaves (New York: Oxford University Press, 1986)
Andrews, William L. To Tell a Free Story: The First Century of Afro-American Autobiography, 1760-1865 (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1986)
Austin, Allan D. African Muslims in Antebellum America: A Sourcebook (New York: Garland, 1984)
Bailey, Anne C. African Voices of the Atlantic Slave Trade: Beyond the Silence and the Shame (Boston: Beacon Press, 2005)
Bellagamba, Alice, Sandra Greene and Martin Klein, eds. African Voices on Slavery and the Slave Trade (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2013)
Bellagamba, Alice, Sandra Greene and Martin Klein, eds. African Slaves African Masters: Politics, Memories, Social Life (Trenton, NJ: Africa World Press, 2017)
Blassingame, John W. Slave Testimony: Two Centuries of Letters, Speeches, Interviews, and Autobiographies (Baton Rouge, LA: Louisiana State University Press, 1977)
Bossart, Johann Jakob Bossart, Arnold R. Highfield, and Vladimir Barac. C.G.A. Oldendorp History of the Mission of the Evangelical Brethren on the Caribbean Islands of St. Thomas, St. Croix, and St. John (Ann Arbor, MI: Karoma Publishers, 1987)
Byrd, Alexander X. Captives and Voyagers: Black Migrants Across the Eighteenth-century British Atlantic World (Baton Rouge, LA: Louisiana State University Press, 2008)
Carretta, Vincent, ed., Unchained Voices: An Anthology of Black Authors in the English-Speaking World of the Eighteenth Century (Lexington: U. of Kentucky Press, 1996)
Castillo, Lisa Earl, and Luis Nicolau Parés. “Marcelina da Silva: A Nineteenth-Century Candomblé Priestess in Bahia,” Slavery & Abolition 31 (2010), 1–27
Cavalheiro, Daniela. “‘I am not a Slave’: Liberated Africans and their Usage of the Judicial System in Nineteenth Century Rio de Janeiro,” UNESCO General History of Africa, Global Africa (Paris: UNESCO, 2019), vol. 10
Conrad, Robert Edgar, Children of God's Fire (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1984)
Conrad, Robert Edgar, World of Sorrow: The African Slave Trade to Brazil, Baton Rouge: LA: Louisana State University Press, 1986
Crosby-Arnold, Margaret. “Joseph Bologne de Saint-Georges (1745-1799),” UNESCO General History of Africa, Global Africa (Paris: UNESCO, 2019), vol. 10
Curtin, Philip D., ed. Africa Remembered: Narratives of West Africans from the Era of Slave Trade (Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin Press, 1967)
Daddi Addoun, Yacine and Paul E. Lovejoy, “The Arabic Manuscript of Muhammad Kaba Saghanughu of Jamaica, c. 1820,” in Annie Paul, ed., Creole Concerns: Essays in Honour of Kamau Brathwaite (Kingston: University of the West Indies Press, 2007), 313-41
Domingues da Silva, Daniel B., David Eltis, Nafees Khan, Philip Misevich and Olatunji Ojo, “The Transatlantic Muslim Diaspora to Latin America in the Nineteenth Century,” Colonial Latin American Review 26:4 (2017),
Domingues da Silva, David Eltis, Philip Misevich and Olatunji Ojo, “The Diaspora of Africans Liberated from Slave Ships in the Nineteenth Century,” Journal of African History 55:3 (2014), 347-69
Eltis, David, Martin Halbert and Philip Misevich. “African Names Database” (
Fisch, Audrey, ed., The Cambridge Companion to the African American Slave Narrative (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007)
Foster, Frances Smith, Witnessing Slavery: The Development of Antebellum Slave Narratives (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1979)
Fyfe, Christopher. “Four Sierra Leone Recaptives,” Journal of African History 2 (1961), 77-85
Graham, Sandra Lauderdale. “Being Yoruba in Nineteenth-Century Rio de Janeiro,” Slavery and Abolition 32:1 (2011), 1–26
Greene, Sandra E. West African Narratives of Slavery: Texts from Late Nineteenth- and Early Twentieth-Century Ghana (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2011)
Hair, P.E.H. “The Enslavement of Koelle’s Informants,” Journal of African History 6:2 (1965), 193-203
Handler, Jerome S. “Life Histories of Enslaved Africans in Barbados,” Slavery & Abolition 19 (1998), 129-41
Handler, Jerome S. “Survivors of the Middle Passage: Life Histories of Enslaved Africans in British America,” Slavery and Abolition 23:1 (2002), 25-56
Handler, Jerome S. and JoAnn Jacoby. “Slave Names and Naming in Barbados, 1650-1830,” William and Mary Quarterly 53:4 (1996), 685-728
Ipsen, Pernille. Daughters of the Trade. Atlantic Slavers and Interracial Marriage on the Gold Coast (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2015)
Johnston, James H. From Slave Ship to Harvard: Yarrow Mamout and the History of an African American Family (New York: Fordham University Press, 2012)
Jones, Adam. “New Light on the Liberated Africans and their Origins: A List of Children Named after Benefactors, 1821-4,” Proceedings of the 5th Birmingham Sierra Leone Studies Symposium, University of Birmingham, Birmingham 1990, 32-42
Jones, Adam, “Recaptive Nations: Evidence Concerning the Demographic Impact of the Atlantic Slave Trade in the Early Nineteenth Century,” Slavery and Abolition 11:1 (1990), 42-57
Keefer, Katrina. Children, Education and Empire in Early Sierra Leone: Left in our Hands (London: Routledge, 2019)
Kirk-Greene, Anthony and Paul Newman, eds. West African Travels and Adventures: Two Autobiographical Narratives from Northern Nigeria (New Haven, CN: Yale University Press, 1971)
Kolapo, F. J. "Military Turbulence, Population Displacement and Commerce on a Southern Frontier of the Sokoto Caliphate. Nupe c.1810-1857," Ph.D. thesis, York Univ. 1999
Kolapo, F. J. "A Primitive Slave Biographical Database for the Nigerian Hinterland: Exploring Sample Challenges and Prospects," Harriet Tubman Seminar, November 1, 1999
Krueger, Robert. “Brazilian Slaves Represented in their Own Words,” Slavery and Abolition 23 (2002), 169-86
La Rue, Michael. “African Slave Women in Egypt, from ca. 1820 to the Plague Epidemic of 1834-1835” in G. Campbell, S. Miers and J. Miller, eds. Women and Slavery: Volume One – Africa and the Western Indian Ocean Islands (Athens, OH: Ohio University Press, 2007), 168-189
LaRue, Michael. “Seeking Freedom in Multiple Contexts: An Enslaved Sudanese Woman’s Life Trajectory, ca. 1800-1834,” Journal of Global Slavery 2:1-2 (2017), 11-43
Law, Robin and Paul E. Lovejoy, The Biography of Mahommah Gardo Baquaqua: His Passage from Slavery to Freedom in Africa and America (Princeton, Markus Wiener Publisher, 2007)
Lindsay, Lisa A. and John Sweet, eds., Biography and the Black Atlantic (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2014)
Lovejoy, Henry B., dir., Liberated Africans.
Lovejoy, Henry B. Prieto: Yorùbá Kingship in Colonial Cuba during the Age of Revolutions (Chapel Hill, University of North Carolina Press, 2018)
Lovejoy, Paul E. Caravans of Kola. The Hausa Kola Trade, 1700-1900 (Zaria: Ahmadu Bello University Press, 1980)
Lovejoy, Paul E. "Background to Rebellion: The Origins of Muslim Slaves in Bahia," Slavery and Abolition, 15:2 (1994), 151-80
Lovejoy, "Biography as Source Material: Towards a Biographical Archive of Enslaved Africans," in Robin Law (ed.), Source Material for Studying the Slave Trade and the African Diaspora (Stirling: Centre of Commonwealth Studies, University of Stirling, 1997), 119-140
Lovejoy, Paul E. “Autobiography and Memory: Gustavus Vassa and the Abolition of the Slave Trade,” Slavery and Abolition 27:3 (2006), 317-47
Lovejoy, Paul E. “The African Background of Venture Smith,” in James B. Stewart, ed., Venture Smith and the Business of Slavery and Freedom (Amherst, MA: University of Massachusetts Press, 2009), 35-55
Lovejoy, Paul E. “Les origines de Catherine Mulgrave Zimmermann: considérations méthodologiques,” Cahiers des Anneaux de la Mémoire 14 (2011), 247-63
Lovejoy, Paul E. “Mohammed Ali Nicholas Sa’id: From Enslavement to American Civil War Veteran,” Millars (2017), 219-32
Lovejoy, Paul E. “Ali Eisami’s Enslavement and Emancipation: The Trajectory of a Liberated African,” in Richard Anderson and Henry B. Lovejoy, eds., Liberated Africans and the Abolition of the Slave Trade, 1807-1896 (Rochester: University of Rochester Press, 2019)
Mamigonian, Beatriz Gallotti. “To be a Liberated African in Brazil: Labour and Citizenship in the Nineteenth Century,” Ph.D. thesis, University of Waterloo, 2002
McKnight, Kathryn Joy. Afro-Latino Voices: Narratives from the Early Modern Ibero-Atlantic World, 1550-1812. Hackett Publishing, 2009
Meuwese, Mark and Jeffrey A. Fortin, eds. Atlantic Biographies: Individuals and Peoples in the Atlantic World (Leiden: Brill, 2014)
Melek Delgado, Érika, “Children, Childhood and Slavery in Sierra Leone: The Experiences of Liberated African Children c.1808-1834,” Ph.D. thesis, University of Worcester, 2017
Meyer-Heiselberg, R., Notes from Liberated African Department in the Archives at Fourah Bay College Freetown, Sierra Leone. Uppsala: Scandinavian Inst. of African Studies, 1967
Moreira, Alinnie Silvestre. “Liberdade tutelada: os africanos livres e as relações de trabalho na Fábrica de Pólvora da Estrela, Serra da Estrela/RJ (c. 1831-c.1870).” Dissertação de Mestrado em História Social da Cultura, Campinas, SP, Unicamp, 2005
Nelson, V.N. “Archibald John Montheith: Native Helper and Assistant in the Jamaica Mission at New Carmel,” Transactions of the Moravian Historical Society 21 (1966), 29-52
Nwokeji, G. Ugo and David Eltis. “Characteristics of Captives Leaving the Cameroons for the Americas, 1822-37,” Journal of African History 43:2 (2002), 191-210
Ojo, Olatunji. “Amazing \struggle: Dasalu, Global Yoruba Networks, and the Fight against Slavery, 1851-1856,” Atlantic Studies: Global Currents 12:1 (2015), 5-25
Oroge, Adeniyi. "The Institution of Slavery in Yorubaland with special reference to the 19th Century," Ph.D. thesis, University of Ibadan, 1971
Pescatello, Ann, ed. The African in Latin America (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1975)
Parker, Grant, ed., The Agony of Asar: A Thesis on Slavery by the Former Slave, Jacobus Elisa Johannes Capitein, 1717-1747 (Princeton: Markus Wiener, 2001)
Rodríguez, Gloria García, Ada Ferrer, and Nancy L. Westrate. Voices of the Enslaved in Nineteenth-Century Cuba: A Documentary History (Chapel Hill, University of North Carolina Press, 2011)
Sensbach, Jon F. A Separate Canaan: The Making of an Afro-Moravian World in North Carolina, 1763-1840 (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1998)
Shields, Francine. “Palm Oil and Power: Women in an Era of Economic and Social Transition in 19th Century Yorubaland (South-Western Nigeria)” (Ph.D. thesis, University of Stirling, 1997)
Strictrodt, Silke. “Afro-Brazilians on the Western Slave Coast,” University of Stirling, 2000
Strictrodt, Silke. “Afro-European Trade Relations on the Western Slave Coast, 16th to 19th Centuries” (Ph.D. thesis, University of Stirling, 2002)
Sweet, James H. Domingos Álvares, African Healing, and the Intellectual History of the Atlantic World (Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 2011)

Historical Context

Eltis, David, dir. Voyages: The Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade Database.
Hall, Gwendolyn Midlo. Slavery and African Ethnicities in the Americas: Restoring the Links (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2005)
Lovejoy, Henry B. and Jerome S. Handler, “Legacy Websites: The Case of Slavery Images: A Visual Record of the African Slave Trade and Slave Life in the Early African Diaspora,”
Lovejoy, Paul E. "The African Diaspora: Revisionist Interpretations of Ethnicity, Culture and Religion under Slavery," Studies in the World History of Slavery, Abolition and Emancipation 2:1 (1997) (
Lovejoy, Paul E. “Methodology through the Ethnic Lens,” in Toyin Falola and Christian Jennings, eds., Sources and Methods in African History: Spoken, Written, Unearthed (Rochester, NY: University of Rochester Press, 2003), 105-117
Lovejoy, Paul E. “Transatlantic Transformations: The Origins and Identities of Africans in the Americas,” in Boubacar Barry, Livio Sansone, and Elisée Soumonni, eds., Africa, Brazil, and the Construction of Trans-Atlantic Black Identities (Trenton, NJ: Africa World Press, 2008), 81-112
Lovejoy, Paul E. Slavery in the Global Diaspora of Africa (London: Routledge, 2016)
Lovejoy, Paul E. and David V. Trotman, eds., Trans-Atlantic Dimensions of Ethnicity in the African Diaspora (London: Continuum, 2004)

Theoretical and Methodological Publications

Chadha, Kartikay, Katrina Keefer and Martha Ladly, “Decoding Origins: Creating a Visual Database from the Registers of Liberated Africans,”
Gaffield, Chad. “Map Quests: Scaling the Past in the Digital Age,” Perspectives on History (2016)
Law, Robin. “Ethnicities of Enslaved Africans in the Diaspora: On the Meanings of ‘Mina’ (Again),” History in Africa 32 (2005), 247-67
Lovejoy, Henry B. “Mapping Uncertainty: The Collapse of Oyo and the Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade, 1816–1836,” Journal of Global Slavery 4 (2019), 127-61
Lovejoy, Henry B. “Redrawing Historical Maps of the Bight of Benin Hinterland, c. 1780,” Canadian Journal of African Studies 47 (3) (2013): 443-463
Lovejoy, Henry B., Paul E. Lovejoy, Walter Hawthorne, Edward A. Alpers, Mariana Candido, Matthew S. Hopper, “Redefining African Regions for Linking Open-Source Data,” History in Africa 46 (2019), 5-36
Newell, A.F., P. Gregor, M. Morgan, G., Pullin, and C. Macaulay, “User-sensitive Inclusive Design” Universal Access in the Information Society 10:3 (2011), 235-43
Zimmerman, E. “Play as Research: The Iterative Design Process,” in M. Ladly and P. Beesley, eds., Mobile Nation: Creating Methodologies for Mobile Platforms (Waterloo, ON: Riverside Architectural Press, 2008), 25-37